“Migraine – Is It All In the Head?” A Case Report on Bowenwork for Migraine Relief.

Sandra Gustafson, MHS, BSN, RN

Introduction: This study aimed to review and assess one migraineur’s response to Bowenwork (gentle, soft-tissue bodywork technique) for reducing migraine occurrence and pain, pharmaceu-tical analgesic consumption, and improving the client’s health-related quality of life (HRQoL), wellbeing and activities of daily living (ADLs). Migraine is a complex neurological disorder characterized by episodic, neurogenic, cerebrovascular inflammation and hypersensitization of brain-tissues and the central nervous system,causing severe pain and debility. Conventional treatments vary greatly and are often pharmaceutically based. Research literature points mostly to pharmaceutical prophylactic and symptomatic treatments, a few non-pharmaceutical,
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches, massage and bodywork studies, and no studies on Bowenwork for migraine intervention.

Participant: A 66 year-old Caucasian female with a history of debilitating migraine since child-hood, and severe neck pain resulting from 2 motor vehicle accidents (MVA) sustained as an adult.

Methodology: A descriptive observational case-report of one client’s responses to receiving four-teen Bowenwork sessions, weekly to two-weekly, over a 4-month period, using the self-reporting Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile version 2 (MYMOP2) to evaluate clinically mean-ingful changes. In previous studies involving participants with chronic pain conditions, MYMOP2 was considered a reliable and valid assessment tool. Prior to each Bowenwork
session, data were recorded to track changes in migraine and neck pain occurrences, medication use, daily functional ability and general sense of wellbeing. Specific Bowenwork procedures were applied in each session, to address the client’s symptoms.

Results: Over 4-months of receiving Bowenwork, the client progressively reported decreased migraine and neck pain; and by session 14, no further migraine, neck pain nor medication use, and increased ADLs and wellbeing, for 10 months thereafter.

Conclusion: Although limited to a single-person, this case-report suggests that Bowenwork may offer nonpharmaceutical migraine and pain relief for migraineurs, however further research on larger populations is indicated.

Reference: Gustafson S. “Migraine – Is It All In the Head?” A Case Report on Bowenwork for Migraine Relief. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. 2015: In Review.

AWARD TYPE:  Past Poster Presenter

A Case Study utilizing Myofascial Release, Acupressure, and Trigger Point Therapy to Treat Bi-Lateral “Stringhalt” in a 12 Year Old Akhal-Teke Horse

Tammy Brockman, MS, ATC/L, LMT, CLT; Stacey Powell, LMT

Introduction: “Stringhalt” is a horse condition that causes one or both hind legs to spasm when walking or trotting. The condition is thought to be related to a neurological cause from plant tox-icity or peripheral nerve injury. The prognosis is poor and the horse’s performance and quality of life can be affected. Treatment has included surgically cutting the digital extensors, with varied results and additional problems.

Case Presentation: The case study is a 12 year old Akhal-Teke horse of excellent pedigree. In 2011, she was caught in barbed wire overnight and sustained lacerations to the bone. Shortly after the injury the horse was placed in an inadequate stall for several months and was unable to walk or run, developing stringhalt. Currently, her condition is aggravated by stress and dietary changes and alleviated by certain types of massage (myofascial, acupressure, trigger point re-lease). The incidence of stringhalt is every 3-5 minutes, with more frequent and severe symptoms on the right. The horse is unable to run or back up.

Methods: Six 1 to 1-1/2 hour bi-weekly treatments were performed. The treatments consisted of myofascial release at the cervical, sacrum, and iliums; acupressure of the bladder meridian in-cluding c-spine, t-spine, L-spine, and hamstring; and trigger point release of the iliacus.

Results: After 6 treatments, the horse was seen running and standing in a position that promotes hip extension. She has not been able to do either since the injury. The frequency and severity of the spasms have decreased to every 10-20 minutes. The horse’s owners report that her disposi-tion and quality of life are much improved.

Discussion: The results suggest that myofascial release, acupressure, and trigger point therapy may be utilized to provide a positive treatment outcome in the case of stringhalt. However, please note that the scope of practice varies by state and special training is needed to work with the equine population.

AWARD TYPE:  Past Poster Presenter

A Specific MFR Technique for Treatment of Non-Specific Upper Quadrant Mylagia and Paraesthesia – A Case Study

Honorable Mention
Sebastien Vachon-Gravel
Atlantic College of Therapeutic Massage
Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada

Abstract
Objective: Investigate whether a case presenting with non-specific upper quadrant
muscle pain and neurological dysfunction would benefit from an isolated myofascial
release (MFR) technique, entitled herein as direct fascial glide with static unwinding (DFG-
SU), in a multitude of related variables: degree of disability and pain, shoulder girdle
kinematics and pectoralis minor length, unilateral upper-extremity strength, and
neurological functioning.
Methods: The intervention consisted of six treatments over a period of five weeks
with pre- and post-intervention examinations. Pain characteristics and degree of disability
was monitored with the Revised Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ-2) as
well as the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and performance of Apley’s
scratch test, respectively. Shoulder girdle kinematics was examined via the combination
of an inclinometer and goniometer. Pectoralis minor length was assessed using a tape
measure against a table and a wall in supine and standing positions, respectively. A handheld
dynamometer allowed for the quantification of grip strength on the affected side.
Finally, tactile sensation and Tinel’s sign was compared using a three-point ranking
system from normal sensation to anaesthesia.
Results: Overall degree of pain, disability, and neurological pain ameliorated after
the intervention, yet no notable change in pectoralis minor length or shoulder girdle
kinematics was noted. Nonetheless, the restricted aspect of Apley’s scratch test and
unilateral grip strength improved by 3.5cm and 2kg, respectively. Finally, tactile
sensation and Tinel’s sign improved from presence of paraesthesia to normal sensation.
Conclusions: The results suggest that the MFR technique described herein
improved overall wellbeing and competence in daily tasks without significantly altering

AWARD TYPE:  Case Report ContestStudent

Acupuncture and Massage for Pain Relief of Familial Mediterranean Fever in Pediatric Patients: A Clinical Case Report

Edward Cho, BA, BS; Marie Lee, BS; Rika Meyer, PhD

Background: Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by intractable pain due to serosal inflammation and sporadic recurring fevers. Little research currently exists on alternative, non-pharmacological interventions for pain management of FMF.

Purpose: In this case report, we examine the effect of acupuncture and massage on chronic pain associated with FMF in 2 pediatric patients.

Methods: Patient #1, an 11 year old Hispanic male, and patient #2, an 8 year old Caucasian fe-male, are FMF patients with diagnoses of chronic pain. Patients received 6 weeks of therapy (ac-upuncture and/or massage) followed by a 4-week treatment gap. Patient #1 received acupuncture followed by massage, and patient #2 received massage only. Each treatment included a 30-min pre-test and a 10-min post-test. Surveys assessed pain, physical health, and psychosocial health per the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Visual Ana-logue Scales (VAS), and FACES Pain Scale.

Results: Both patients showed immediate improvements in VAS and FACES pain measures fol-lowing treatment with a total or near total relief of pain observed in the majority of recorded in-stances where patients presented with pain. Physical health scores showed a slight worsening in patient #1, but a moderate improvement in patient #2. BPI pain severity scores slightly worsened for patient #1 but improved for patient #2, while BPI pain interference scores slightly improved for patient #1 and slightly worsened for patient #2.

Conclusions: Acupuncture and massage may be a promising palliative treatment for chronic pain associated with FMF. However, findings are limited due to small sample size and lack of baseline data (week 1 pre-test data) for patient #2. Future research should conduct a larger RCT on acupuncture and massage for pediatric FMF patients and other chronic pain conditions such as fibromyalgia, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.

AWARD TYPE:  Past Poster Presenter

Benefits of Massage Therapy for Patients with Severe Burn Injuries: A Case Study

Robin Gawronski, LMT; Kristy Ruiz, LMT; Amanda Sonk, LMT; Travis Duffey, MS, LMT

Introduction: Although Massage Therapy (MT) is a less common treatment modality offered in inpatient pediatric hospital settings, research has shown that patients with severe burn injuries benefit from MT by having a decrease in pain, anxiety, and itching (Parlak Gürol et al., 2010). Research has also shown that when utilized prior to painful procedures, MT can lessen a patient’s non-verbal pain and stress response, as well as facilitate dressing changes (Hernandez-Reif et al., 2001).

Objective: We present the case of a 13-year old male who was admitted to the hospital after a self-inflicted flame burn, covering 83% of his total body surface area. This case study will demonstrate the benefits of including MT as part of an interdisciplinary burn team in order to improve range of motion (ROM), appearance of scarring, and decrease pain and anxiety over the course of treatment.

Methods: The patient received MT up to 10 times per week for sessions lasting from 30 minutes to two hours in individual or co-treat sessions with OT/PT to assist with increasing ROM and to decreasing pain and anxiety. ROM was recorded to demonstrate changes in pliability, and pic-tures were taken throughout his course in order to demonstrate changes in appearance of burn scars. Anxiety reduction was evidenced through changes in non-verbal indicators and heart rate values recorded using hospital monitors. Additionally, pain scales and verbal reports of itching were recorded throughout treatment.

Results: Throughout his admission, the patient displayed positive responses to MT including a decreased heart rate, reduced itchiness, improved appearance and increased pliability of burn scars, and verbalized decrease in pain scale rating.

Conclusion: MT can be an integral part of the treatment course for severe burn sufferers. This case demonstrates the value of including MT throughout a patient’s recovery to promote im-proved outcomes.

AWARD TYPE:  Past Poster Presenter

Benefits of Massage Therapy for Patients with Severe Burn Injuries: A Case Study

Robin Gawronski, LMT; Kristy Ruiz, LMT; Amanda Sonk, LMT; Travis Duffey, MS, LMT

Introduction: Although Massage Therapy (MT) is a less common treatment modality offered in inpatient pediatric hospital settings, research has shown that patients with severe burn injuries benefit from MT by having a decrease in pain, anxiety, and itching (Parlak Gürol et al., 2010). Research has also shown that when utilized prior to painful procedures, MT can lessen a patient’s non-verbal pain and stress response, as well as facilitate dressing changes (Hernandez-Reif et al., 2001).

Objective: We present the case of a 13-year old male who was admitted to the hospital after a self-inflicted flame burn, covering 83% of his total body surface area. This case study will demonstrate the benefits of including MT as part of an interdisciplinary burn team in order to improve range of motion (ROM), appearance of scarring, and decrease pain and anxiety over the course of treatment.

Methods: The patient received MT up to 10 times per week for sessions lasting from 30 minutes to two hours in individual or co-treat sessions with OT/PT to assist with increasing ROM and to decreasing pain and anxiety. ROM was recorded to demonstrate changes in pliability, and pic-tures were taken throughout his course in order to demonstrate changes in appearance of burn scars. Anxiety reduction was evidenced through changes in non-verbal indicators and heart rate values recorded using hospital monitors. Additionally, pain scales and verbal reports of itching were recorded throughout treatment.

Results: Throughout his admission, the patient displayed positive responses to MT including a decreased heart rate, reduced itchiness, improved appearance and increased pliability of burn scars, and verbalized decrease in pain scale rating.

Conclusion: MT can be an integral part of the treatment course for severe burn sufferers. This case demonstrates the value of including MT throughout a patient’s recovery to promote im-proved outcomes.

AWARD TYPE:  Past Poster Presenter

Comparing the Effects of Rest and Massage Following Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

Portia B. Resnik, MA, ATC, LMT

Introduction: Post-exercise massage can be utilized to help promote recovery from exercise on the cellular level as well as systemically by increasing parasympathetic activity. No studies to date have been done to assess the effects of massage on post-exercise metabolic changes, includ-ing excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of massage recovery and resting recovery on a subject’s heart rate variability and selected metabolic effects following a submaximal treadmill exercise session.

Methods: One healthy 24 year-old female subject performed 30-minutes of submaximal tread-mill exercise prior to resting or massage recovery sessions. Metabolic data was collected throughout the exercise sessions and at three 10-minute intervals post-exercise. Heart rate varia-bility was evaluated for 10-minutes after each of two 30-minute recovery sessions, either resting or massage.

Results: Heart rate returned to below resting levels (73 bpm) with 30 and 60 minutes of massage recovery (72 bpm and 63 bpm respectively) compared to 30 and 60 minutes of resting recovery (77 bpm and 74 bpm respectively). Heart rate variability data showed a more immediate shift to the parasympathetic state following 30-minutes of massage (1.152 LF/HF ratio) versus the 30 minute resting recovery (6.91 LF/HF ratio). It took 60-minutes of resting recovery to reach simi-lar heart rate variability levels (1.216 LF/HF) found after 30 minutes of massage. Ventilations after 30 minutes of massage recovery averaged 7.1BPM compared to 17.9BPM after 30 minutes of resting recovery.

Discussion: No differences in EPOC were observed through either the resting or massage recov-ery based on the metabolic data collected. Massage can be used to help an athlete shift into para-sympathetic activity more quickly than rest alone following a submaximal exercise session.

Reference: Resnik P. Comparing the Effects of Rest and Massage Following Submaximal Aero-bic Exercise. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. 2015: In Review.

AWARD TYPE:  Past Poster Presenter

Development of a Hospital-Based Massage Therapy Course at an Academic Medical Center

Lisa Dion

Background: Massage therapy is offered increasingly in US medical facilities. Although the United States has many massage schools, their education differs, along with licensure and standards. As massage therapy in hospitals expands and proves its value, massage therapists need increased training and skills in working with patients who have various complex medical concerns, to provide safe and effective treatment. These services for hospitalized patients can impact patient experience substantially and provide additional treatment options for pain and anxiety, among other symptoms. This poster summarizes the initial development and description of a hospital-based massage therapy course at a Midwest medical center.

Methods: A hospital-based massage therapy course was developed on the basis of clinical experience and knowledge from massage therapists working in the complex medical environment. This massage therapy course has three components in its educational experience: online learning, classroom study, and a 25-hour shadowing experience. The in-classroom study portion includes an entire day in the simulation center.

Results: The hospital-based massage therapy course addresses the educational needs of therapists transitioning to work with interdisciplinary medical teams and with patients who have complicated medical conditions. Feedback from students in the course has indicated key learning opportunities and additional content that is needed to address the knowledge and skills necessary when providing massage therapy in a complex medical environment.

Conclusions: The complexity of care in medical settings is increasing while the length of hospital stay is decreasing. For this reason, massage provided in the hospital requires more specialized training to work in these environments. This poster provides an example of the initial steps in how to address some of the educational needs of therapists who are transitioning to working in the complex medical environment.

AWARD TYPE:  Past Poster Presenter

Effect of Deep Cross-Friction Myotherapy on Pressure Pain Thresholds in Patients with Non-specific Low Back Pain

Andre Farasyn, PhD, PT, DO; R Meeusen, PhD

Objective: To investigate (1) the pressure pain thresholds [PPTs] with respect to muscles related to low back pain [LBP] and to a muscle unrelated to lower back region, and (2) to explore the effect of Deep cross‐friction massage sessions [roptrotherapy] on PPTs, pain sensitivity and disability.

Methods: 65 consecutive patients with subacute non‐specific LBP were allocated in this clinical trial. The primary outcome measures were the PPTs measured with the aid of a mechanical FISCHER algometer of levels L1, L3, and L5 of the Erector spinae and the Gluteus maximus. The middle of the left Triceps brachii was chosen as a neutral measuring point unrelated to LBP. Additionally, pain rating (VAS) and disability variables (ODI) were examined. In order to establish reference values, 64 healthy subjects [control group] were examined with respect to similar PPTs.

Results: The mean PPT values of the erector spinae and the gluteus maximus of the LBP group were significantly lower in comparison to the PPT values of the healthy group. The correlation between having LBP and PPT was highest at the L3 level of the erector spinae [r=0.73, P< 0.001]. The ODI and VAS decreased significantly after the 1st roptrotherapy session by more than 50% and 25% after the second roptrotherapy session. At baseline, the PPTs of the erector spinae levels increased after the 3 roptrotherapy sessions, yielding a situation in which the patients no longer had back complaints, while the neutral triceps brachii remained unchanged over the entire time.

Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that patients with nLBP treated 3 times weekly with deep cross-friction massage, or roptrotherapy, had increased PPTs at the nLBP-related M.

Erector spinae L1, L3, and L5 and M. Gluteus maximus levels and is probably responsible for the healing effect on local muscle tenderness. The 3-month follow-up results revealed that the PPT values of the non-treated and neutral Triceps brachii remained unchanged, while the PPT of the most highly nLBP related Erector spinae and Gluteus maximus levels increased in such way that the PPT values became similar to those of healthy subjects. Deep friction therapy of those muscle hardenings may desensitize central neural structures involved in pain perception and is not meaningfully influenced by the possible release of endogenous opioid hormones.

The hypothesis that non-specific LBP is primarily a myofascial pain syndrome caused by local injured muscular, structures within the thoracolumbar spine and buttock should be supported.

Reference: FarasynA, MeeusenR. Effect of Roptrotherapy on pressure pain thresholds in patients with subacute non-specific low back pain. Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 2007; 15:41-53.

AWARD TYPE:  Past Poster Presenter

Effect of Massage Therapy on the Proprioceptive System of an Autistic Child – A Case Study

Gold Winner
Rachel Benbow
HACC, Central Pennsylvania Community College
Harrisburg, PA

ABSTRACT
Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often have an
underdeveloped or dysfunctional proprioceptive system, leading to significant
motor skill delays and increased anxiety. There is not enough clinical research to
prove the efficacy of massage therapy on proprioceptive dysfunction in children
with ASD, but if proven effective massage therapy could offer a new intervention
for this issue.
Purpose: The objective of this case report is to describe changes in the
proprioceptive abilities of a child with ASD after the application of 8 massage
therapy sessions over a four week period.
Participant: 5 year old female with mid to high functioning autism and
proprioceptive dysfunction. The client’s proprioceptive dysfunction impairs gross
motor planning and execution, creating gross motor developmental delays.
Intervention: Eight 40 minute massage therapy sessions, consisting of Swedish
massage and foot reflexology, were administered twice a week over four weeks.
Improvements in proprioceptive abilities were monitored through pre and postmassage
testing activities that included single foot balancing, jumping rope, backand-
forth ball bouncing, and independent ball dribbling.
Results: The client displayed improvement in proprioceptive testing tasks at a
much faster rate than her usual learning curve. Proprioceptive progress was
demonstrated by gains in gross motor skills pertaining to postural control, overall
body coordination, and use of force.
Conclusion: Although positive results were achieved within this case study, more
extensive studies are needed to verify the efficacy of massage therapy on
proprioceptive dysfunction in children with ASD.

AWARD TYPE:  Case Report ContestStudent

Effectiveness of Massage Therapy on Pediatric Patients with Chronic Pain

Ling Tsui, Arianna Robin

Introduction: Massage therapy (MT) is a common intervention used in patients with chronic pain. Although most literature on the effects of MT focuses on adults, existing studies on
pediatric MT have shown decreases in pain and distress immediately after each treatment. This study examined the overall benefits of massage in pediatric patients with chronic pain across 4 treatments.

Methods: Fifty-one participants (74.5% female and 23.5% male; ages 5 to 19; Mage= 15, SD=
3.21) from an urban children’s hospital-based pediatric pain clinic, completed a survey pre- and post-massage and self-reported a variety of critical outcomes. Anxiety, comfort, relaxation, and calmness was assessed using a 10-cm Visual Analog Scales (VAS) ranging from 0 (strongly
disagree) to 10 (strongly agree); pain intensity was evaluated using the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) (Hicks et al., 2001); and sleepiness was assessed with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (Johns,1991).

Results: Results revealed significant changes in comfort (F(3,42)=5.89, p=.02), relaxation
(F(3,54)=6.27, p=.00), and calmness (F(3,45)=2.18, p=.00), indicating that MT is effective in increasing comfort, relaxation and calmness in patients across time. Although significant
changes in pain were found from pre- to post- within each treatment, no significant changes in anxiety, pain VAS, Pain FPS-R, sleepiness across treatments were reported over time, suggesting that MT’s effect in reducing anxiety, pain and sleepiness is temporary, as opposed to long-lasting improvements.

Conclusion: Future studies should 1) include a larger sample, 2) provide greater than 4 sessions to examine the ongoing cumulative effects of MT versus the acute pain relief, and 3) continue to investigate the effectiveness of MT alone and in combination with other integrative health
interventions. Integrated health interventions are critical in the management of patients with chronic health conditions.

AWARD TYPE:  Past Poster Presenter

Effects of Massage Therapy on Pain Associated with Partial Lumbarization of S1

Honorable Mention
Briana Covey
Canadian College of Massage and Hydrotherapy
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

Introduction: Lumbarization, known as a transitional vertebra or lumbrosacral transitional
vertebra, is a congenital abnormality where the first segment of sacrum is not fused. The purpose
of this study is to explore the effects of massage therapy on the management of chronic low back
pain associated with right sided partial lumbarization of S1, by using General Swedish and non-
Swedish massage techniques.
Methods: The patient was chosen based on her chronic back pain due to her right sided partial
lumbarization of S1. A treatment plan was designed using General Swedish and non-Swedish
technique and performed for ten, one hour treatments. The patient’s progress was monitored
using a visual analogue scale for pain, energy, and quality of sleep, as well as assessment of
range of motion.
Results: Results showed a three point decrease in day-to-day pain of the patient. Improved
quality of sleep by two points and increased energy levels by three points in the morning and one
point in the evening were reported as well.
Conclusion: The outcomes of this study therefore suggests that massage therapy is an effective
treatment for managing chronic low back pain due to right sided partial lumbarization of S1.

AWARD TYPE:  Case Report ContestStudent

Free Massage Therapy for Cancer Patients

Cancer Family Care
Carol Huber

For 44 years, Cancer Family Care (CFC) has served the Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky community as a non-profit social service agency offering a comprehensive array of programming that provides well-rounded support to children, adults, and families coping with the often devastating and overwhelming impact of cancer-related illness. As part of its Waddell Family Healing Hands Program, CFC offers free oncology massage to cancer patients. With this grant, an estimated 39 cancer patients will receive four free massage therapy sessions. The outcome of the program is to reduce cancer patients’ physical symptoms of  pain, stress, soreness, fatigue, muscle tightness, and spasms. CRC also hopes to enhance cancer patients’ sense of well-being and improve their quality of life.
This grant was sponsored in part by a gift from Biotone.

AWARD TYPE:  Community Service Grants

Impact of Massage Therapy on Well-Being for Parents of Children Recovering From Traumatic Injury

Natalie Williams, PhD
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Lincoln, Nebraska

 

The purpose of this research project is to examine the effects of massage therapy as an intervention strategy to improve parents’ well-being in the context of child rehabilitation from severe injury/illness. Although the symptomatic benefits of therapeutic massage have been documented, massage represents a novel intervention to promote physical and psychological wellbeing among caregivers of children recovering from severe injury or illness. Participants for this study include parents of 40 children receiving inpatient rehabilitation for severe injury or illness at Alexis Verzal Children’s Rehabilitation Hospital in Lincoln, Nebraska. Following enrollment, participants are randomized to receive either three massage sessions per week for two weeks, or one massage session per week for two weeks. For all participants, regardless of group assignment, study outcomes are assessed pre-intervention (occurring at enrollment, prior to randomization) and post-intervention (occurring two weeks post enrollment). Primary outcomes include self-report measures of psychological functioning (positive and negative mood, anxiety, depression) and perceived stress. For our secondary outcomes, saliva samples are collected to assess the effects of massage on salivary cortisol (to measure stress response) and salivary alpha-amylase (to measure autonomic nervous system activation) reactivity during a verbal stress task. Participants’ sleep is also measured using actigraphy.

AWARD TYPE:  Research Grants

Improving the Quality of Life for Children with Cerebral Palsy in Central America

Liliana Urias
Christian Blind Mission

Established in 1908, CBM is the world’s oldest development organization focused exclusively on the needs and the rights of person with disabilities. CBM’s mission is to improve the quality of life of persons with disabilities and those at risk of disability in the poorest countries of the world. They currently work in 68 low and middle income countries with a network of local partners in those countries. The grant, combined with what individual donors will match will provide essential massage and physical therapy services to 250 children with cerebral palsy. It will provide training and support through parent support groups to parents of these children It will also provide essential new skills in massage and physical therapy techniques as well as supportive supervision to 14 CBR workers who will receive necessary training and supportive supervision. The project has the potential of being the spark to improving massage and physical therapy access to people with cerebral palsy and their families in Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua.

AWARD TYPE:  Community Service Grants

Massage Therapy for the Reduction of Pain in Palliative Care Patients at a Children’s Hospital

Natalia Jaramillo, BA; Rika Meyer, PhD; Lauren Conn, BA; Jeffrey I. Gold, PhD

Introduction: Integrated health interventions, such as massage are becoming more frequently used in pain management of palliative care patients (Mansky et al., 2006; Klick et al., 2010). However, there is limited research examining the effectiveness of massage in the reduction of pain among this population of patient.

Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to assess whether massage reduced pain intensity in children, adolescents and young adults receiving palliative care.

Methods: We examined 11 palliative care patients at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles (6 female; Ages 1-20; M=15.18, SD=5.74). Massage therapists completed a thirty-minute Swedish massage on each patient. Patients aged 8 and above were asked to self-report their pain intensity before the massage, at present, and in the past week n = 10 (Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) and (FAC-ES Pain Scale-Revised, Hicks et al., 2001). Parents and nurses were asked open-ended questions about the overall effect of massage on the patient.

Results: Mean scores of pain decrease pre- (M=3.25) to post-treatment (M=.50). Patients mean score of pain also decreased from past week (M=4.57) to after massage (M=.57). However, paired sample t-tests were not significant for pain intensity of patients before and after massage (t(7)=2.11, p=.07) and pain in the past week and after massage (t(6)=2.37, p=.06). Analysis of pilot data suggests that massage may be effective in reducing self-reported pain intensity in chil-dren, adolescents and young adults on the palliative care service. Qualitative data from parents and nurses also demonstrated that massage was beneficial in increasing relaxation and providing comfort to patients.

Conclusion: The study provides preliminary evidence supporting the effects of massage and its role in decreasing pain intensity and offering therapeutic value to children adolescents and young adults receiving palliative care. Further investigation is needed with a larger sample to assess pain reduction and other potential benefits.

AWARD TYPE:  Past Poster Presenter

Perceptions of Evidence-Based Practice: A Survey of Members of the Florida State Massage Therapy Association

Ronald J. Kettering, DHSc, MBA; Joan S. Leafman, PhD; Lisa A. Wallace, PhD; Jerrilyn A. Cambron, PhD, DC

Introduction: Massage therapists must have the necessary knowledge and skills to evaluate avail-able research to make effective clinical decisions. However, the extent to which the attitudes of massage therapists towards the value of using evidence in patient care, and their confidence in their ability to implement evidence-based practice (EBP) is lacking in the body of available evi-dence.

Purpose: This study explored the perceptions of the clinical value of EBP among members of the Florida State Massage Therapy Association (FSMTA) and their confidence in implementing it in practice.

Methods: Members (n=498) completed a secure online survey related to beliefs and attitudes about EBP and met the research inclusion criteria. This study used univariate non-parametric sta-tistics to analyze demographic and EBP variables.

Results: The findings suggest participants perceived EBP as an important aspect of practicing massage therapy. Statistically significant findings included: Positive belief in the importance of critical appraisals (68.0%, n=259) and belief that EBP can improve patient care outcomes (66.4%, n=253). However, there remains a need among massage therapists to develop confidence in using EBP to optimize clinical outcomes. The belief that EBP is difficult to utilize in clinical practice was significantly negative (93.2%, n=355). Confidence in using evidence to answer clinical questions (52.8%, n=201) and confidence in the ability to overcome EBP implementation barriers (52.0%, n=198) were low.

Conclusion: This study described important EBP and confidence attributes of the population of FSMTA members, and provided important foundational data that can be used to help in the de-velopment of future massage therapy research literacy programs and clinical application policies.

Keywords: evidence-based practice, massage, research, methodology, outcomes, education, training, standards
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

AWARD TYPE:  Past Poster Presenter

Regional Analysis of Massage Therapy in Outpatient Cancer Centers

Virginia S. Cowen, Ph.D., L.M.T., Lillian Pliner, M.D. , Robin Streit, L.M.T. , Nadine Jenkins, Ph.D., Bijal Parikh

Introduction: Non-pharmacological interventions like massage can play an important role in helping cancer patients manage cancer and cancer treatment-related symptoms. Many studies on massage for cancer patients have illustrated the positive impact, but it is unclear whether massage is routinely made available at cancer centers. The purpose of this project was to analyze if, where, and how massage was incorporated into cancer care in the Newark/New York City metropolitan area.

Methods: A mixed-methods analysis combined a content analysis of web-based information with a telephone survey. Cancer centers within a 50 mile radius of the Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences Campus were chosen for review.

Results: Approximately half of the centers in the sample (40, 51.3%) offered massage therapy onsite for cancer patients undergoing treatment. An array of different massage modalities were offered to cancer patients including Reiki, reflexology, and Therapeutic Touch. Swedish mas-sage, aromatherapy, manual lymphatic drainage and neuromuscular massage were also refer-enced. Thirty minute massages were the most frequently described length with treatments rang-ing from 10 to 90 minutes. None of the centers billed insurance companies directly for massage therapy. Eighteen centers (23.1%) employed or contracted with a licensed massage therapist. Pa-tients had the choice to seek massage on their own, with only 5 centers (6.4%) requiring approval of a physician. Massage treatment was recorded in the patient’s medical record in only 11 centers (14.1%).

Discussion: Findings reveal massage is only made available on-site at half the oncology centers in the Newark/New York City metropolitan area. Centers that did offer massage provided thera-pists credentialing to treat cancer patients. Since most massage services were free or paid out-of-pocket by patients, this suggests the impact of massage for cancer and cancer treatment-related symptoms is not stimulating recognition of massage as a viable supportive treatment by insurance companies.

AWARD TYPE:  Past Poster Presenter

The Effect of Massage Therapy on Postural Dysfunction Exacerbated by Parkinson’s Disease

Bronze Winner
Keiko Marumo
MacEwan University
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Abstract
Background: The causes that lead to low back pain (LBP) vary, and include poor
postural alignment, muscle fatigue, and chronic conditions. Deviations from
balanced upright posture can result, leading to hypertonicity in compensatory
muscles. With increased kyphosis and forward head posture, affected tissues
include scapular retractors and anterior cervical muscles. With decreased lumbar
lordosis, affected tissues include lumbar, trunk and hip muscles. Conditions such
as Parkinson’s disease (PD), can exacerbate LBP, since a common sign of it is
postural change.
Objective: To show that massage therapy is effective in reducing LBP by
applying relaxation, myofascial release (MFR), mobilization, and stretching
techniques, and hydrotherapy heat to postural misalignment resulting from PD.
Methods: A 55-year-old male diagnosed with PD in 2012, presented with
shooting LBP in the left lumbar region after lifting a heavy gate. Clinical analysis
suggested muscle strain exacerbated by postural changes related to PD. The
treatment aim was to decrease LBP in the affected muscles. The treatment plan
involved 50-minute sessions of massage, once a week, for five weeks. Techniques
included hydrotherapy heat application, relaxation techniques, MFR techniques,
passive stretches, and passive mobilizations. The treatment was provided by a
second year massage therapy student.
Results: The patient reported an overall decrease in pain intensity, by rating pain
descriptors. The patient also reported a general decrease in disability caused by

AWARD TYPE:  Case Report ContestStudent

The Impact of the Swedish Massage on the Kinesthetic Differentiation in Healthy Individuals

Mariusz P. Furmanek, Kamil Mustafa, Michal Pawlowski, Grzegorz Juras

Background: Swedish massage (in Europe also known as classic massage) is one of the common treatments that are used to provide optimal start and readiness of athletes. Kinesthetic differentiation (KD) is ability of an individual to assume the demanded muscle forces in order to optimize the required motor tasks (its economy and precision). There is no evidence how Swedish massage influences the kinesthetic differentiation. This issue is definitely worth exploring, taking into account the concept of a reflex-nervous activity of massage and the role of the kinesthetic differentiation in the structure of motor coordination.

Purpose: The main objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of the Swedish massage on the kinesthetic differentiation through measurements of maximal force grip and required partial force grip under static conditions.

Methods: Thirty participants took part in this investigation (17 women and 13 men). The subjects were (mean ±sd): age: 22.2 ±1.09 years old, height: 173.2 ±8.91 cm, and weight: 68.5 ±13.48 kg. The assessment consisted of two kinesthetic differentiation (hand grip force) tests conducted on the dominant (DH) and non-dominant hand (NDH). The first test reflected the natural state of KD, while the second one was expected to reflect the impact of the 15-minute hand and forearm Swedish massage. These tests were done within 1 minute after the completion of massage. The procedure consisted of thirteen trials for each extremity. The first three were done for 100% of the participants’ capabilities, which allowed to assess the participants’ maximum force (Fmax), next five trials were done using 50% of maximum force (50% of Fmax), and in the last five trials, the participants tried to use only 50% of their previous force (1/2 of 50%). Base on the model forces the absolute force production error (FPE) expressed in percentage was calculated for 50% (FPE_50%) and 25% (FPE_ 25%).

Results: The 2-way repeated measure analysis of variance ANOVA did not reveal any statistically significant changes in maximal force grip and kinesthetic differentiation between pre- and post-massage intervention in both dominant and non-dominant hand. Correlations showed strong relationship between pre- and post-massage for maximum force (r = 0.92, p = 0.01 for DH, and r = 0.94, p = 0.01 for NDH), and only for the FPE_50% (r = 0.67, p = 0.01 for DH, and r = 0.71, p = 0.01 for NDH).

Conclusions: The results obtained indicated that the application of the Swedish massage (for 15 minutes in hand and forearm muscles) did not affect the kinesthetic differentiation in this particular young adults group.

Reference: Mustafa K, Furmanek M.P, Knapik A, Bacik B, Juras G. The impact of the Swedish massage on the kinesthetic differentiation in healthy individuals. International journal of therapeutic massage & bodywork. 2015, 8(1), 2-11.

AWARD TYPE:  Past Poster Presenter

Using Dynamic Angular Petrissage for Axillary Web Syndrome Occurring After Breast Cancer Surgery

Paul A. Lewis, RMT, CDT; Joan E. Cunningham, PhD

Introduction: Axillary web syndrome (AWS), also called lymphatic cording, typically presents in the weeks after axillary surgery for breast cancer. This painful condition is like-ly angiolymphatic and fibrotic in origin, and restricts upper extremity range of motion (ROM). It has no establised treatment although physical therapy and other approaches have been used to variable effect.

Objective: Swedish massage and specialized passive movement techniques were applied in the case of a young woman with axillary cording, to investigate effectiveness in reducing pain and restricted ROM caused by this condition.

Case Presentation and Methods: A female patient who had recently undergone axillary surgery presented with pain (self-reported as 5 on a scale of 0-10) and restricted use of the ipsilateral up-per extremity. Extent of cording (taut, from axilla to wrist) and flexion at glenohumeral joint (GH; 140 degrees measured by goniometer) were assessed. Therapeutic massage was adminis-tered over two sessions. Methods included dynamic angular petrissage techniques: stretching and relaxing the target tissue by taking the limb through all possible angles of movement while sim-ultaneously and segmentally applying Swedish and non-Swedish (including myofascial, lym-phatic drainage, etc.) techniques to the underlying soft tissue. The cord was considered a struc-ture to be released, rather than a tissue to be torn or broken. The patient practiced prescribed self-care exercises between treatment sessions.

Results: After Session One pain was reduced to 0/10, GH flexion improved to 170 degrees and cording was visibly reduced. After Session Two the cord was only residually apparent, with no ROM restrictions even during hyperextension. Long-term outcome was complete resolution after only two sessions, with no recurrence of AWS.

Conclusions: Pain, restricted flexion and cording were quickly and gently eliminated. The com-bination of massage and movement using dynamic angular petrissage techniques is proposed as an effective, efficient treatment approach for axillary web syndrome.

AWARD TYPE:  Past Poster Presenter

Utilizing Chair Massage to Address One Woman’s Health in Ghana, West Africa: A Case Report

Gold Award Winner 
Cathy Meryanos
Conway, South Carolina

Thank you to Massage Warehouse for for their generous gift to our gold case report winner!

Background and Objectives: There is limited access to healthcare in rural Ghana and virtually no rehabilitative services available. This case study presents a unique opportunity to utilize chair massage in addressing women’s health in rural Africa, particularly when it comes to muscle pain and fatigue from heavy labor. The objective of this study is to determine the results of chair massage as a strategy to reduce neck, shoulder, and back pain and increase range of motion.

Case Presentation: The patient is a 63-year-old Ghanaian female, who was struck by a public transport van while carrying a 30-50 pound load on her head. The accident resulted in a broken right humerus and soft tissue pain. A traditional medicine practitioner set the bone. There was no post-accident rehabilitation available. At the time of referral, she presented complaints of shoulder, elbow, and wrist pain. In addition, she was unable to raise her right hand to her mouth for food intake.

Results: The results of this case study include an increase in range of motion, as well as diminished pain in the right shoulder, elbow, and hand. There was also a decrease in muscle hypertonicity in the thoracic and cervical areas, and a profound increase in quality of life for the patient.

Discussion: This case study illustrates how therapeutic chair massage was utilized to address a common health concern for one woman in rural Africa. It also demonstrates pre-exiting myoskeletal issues and pain may be eliminated with massage intervention. Massage therapy may be important to ameliorating certain types of health problems in remote rural villages in low income countries.

AWARD TYPE:  Case Report ContestPractitioner